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2013 Science Of Supplements

Longevity By Nature

This special section of Natural Practitioner comes in response to the desire for a greater understanding of the research and history behind the products available to practitioners and their patients, and manufacturers wanting to offer the science that backs the effectiveness of their products. We have featured a similar section annually in Natural Practitioner’s sister publication, Nutrition Industry Executive magazine,since 2002, where it was designed to help manufacturers gain a better understanding of the ingredients and services available that can make their products stand out.

Companies and associations have responded to this opportunity with background information about the health concerns their products are intended to address, histories of the nutrients behind their products and details of research Carried out. In order to bridge the gap between interested practitioners and these companies, we’ve also provided company addresses, phone numbers and 
website addresses to make obtaining additional information easier.


Human Nutrition Division
100 Maple Park Blvd., Ste. 110
St. Clair Shores, MI 48081
Phone: (801) 825-9877; (800) 222-0733
Email: mmotyka@albionminerals.com • Website: www.albionminerals.com

Albion Minerals & Cognitive Function

As the population of the developed nations continues to see the lifespan of its people lengthen, science has started to look closer at the processes of cognitive function. What do scientists mean by cognitive function? According to Mosby’s Medical Dictionary (8th Edition, 2009, Elsevier), “Cognitive function is an intellectual process by which one becomes aware of, perceives or comprehends ideas.It involves all aspects of perception, thinking, reasoning and remembering.”

During the aging process, there are changes in cognitive function that are commonly observed. Cognitive function can be negatively impacted by acute trau- mas, such as strokes, concussions and other diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), as well. There is no doubt that cognitive function is of critical importance to human science and the curiosity concerning how to maintain or improve our cognitive abilities is at an all-time high.


Magnesium has received some attention in relation to brain aging and the decline in cognitive function. In 2004 it was observed that magnesium declines after traumatic brain injury.1 Researchers tested the use of magnesium on animals suffering from the post-traumatic depression/anxiety commonly associated with traumatic brain injury and concluded that magnesium serves to benefit a CNS neuroprotective agent after traumatic brain injury.

A paper by M.R. Hoane2 looked further into the use of magnesium in therapy against cognitive performance loss following traumatic brain injury. In various cases of cortical injury, it was demonstrated that use of magnesium effectively improved recovery of cognitive deficits.Meanwhile, other evidence points to a relationship between lower magnesium levels having a negative impact on many functional properties of the hippocampal neuronal networks.3 The hippocampus, among other things, is majorly involved in memory forming, organizing and storing.In addition, Inna Slutsky, et al., conducted a study4 that showed magnesium deficit Can lead to decreased learning and memory ability, while an abundance of magnesium leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory.


The use of creatine for issues related to brain function or cognitive function is still a relatively new area. In vitro work delved into the use of creatine in the hip pocampus.5 The results from this study indicate that creatine increased calcineurin activity, which is known to cause impaired working memory, attention deficit and other behavioral activities.

Scientists reported that creatine is an inexpensive and safe dietary ingredient, stating that it has both peripheral and central effects.6 Further, researchers have said that “the benefits afforded older adults through creatine ingestion are substantial, can improve quality of life and ultimately may reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia and cognitive dysfunction.” 

A Case for Creatine MagnaPower 

Albion has had clinical studies performed by independent university researchers that have demonstrated the bioavailability and effectiveness of Creatine MagnaPower.7 This patented ingredient provides both magnesium and creatine in a single compound that has been shown to have beneficial effects in the field of sports performance. Studies have shown Creatine MagnaPower can assist in the enhancement of the development of anaerobic muscular performance. More specifically, it has been observed that Creatine MagnaPower gave rise to a greater increase in skeletal muscle intracellular water, than those using creatinemonohydrate. An increase in this intracellular water is believed to indicate a greater Increase in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Creatine MagnaPower users were observed to have a greater increase in peak power and other indicators of anaerobic muscle performance. Albion has combined creatine and magnesium into a single compound, given the involvement of each of these nutrients in forming the energy rich ATP needed for skeletal muscle contraction.

In new research on cognitive function, there is substantial evidence that points to the benefits of both magnesium and creatine in the area of cognitive function. The use of Creatine MagnaPower in products geared towards cognitive function will become more relevant to an aging populace concerned with memory loss.

Creatine MagnaPower is a bioavailable source of magnesium and creatine.


1 Fromm L, et al, J Am Coll Nutr. 23(5):529S- 533S.

2 M.R. Hoane, Magnes Res. 2007; 20(4):229-236.

3 Reviewed by Billard, JM: Magnes Res. 2006; 19(3) 199-215.

4 Inna Slutsky, et al., Neuron. 65,165-177, January, 2010.

5 Rambo, LM, Brain Res. Bull. 2012 Sep 1;88(6):553-9.

6 Rawson ES and Venezia AC, 2011(ISSN 1438-2199) .

7 Albion Research Notes, Vol 18, No 3 (Sept 2009).

America’s Finest Incorporated

20 Lake Dr.
East Windsor, NJ 08520
Phone: (800) 350-3305
Email: info@afisupplements.com
Website: www.afisupplements.com

Nilitis SR: A Novel Bi-Layer Tablet for Joint Health

Recently, Sabinsa Corporation launched its bi-layer technology named INC (Integrated Nutritional Composites). The value of bilayer technology is in the flexibility it offers for formulation, as sometimes it is desirable that two ingredients are not premixed, but are co-consumed by the user.

The next level of novelty added to bilayer technology is when the release profile of active ingredients in a bilayer tablet is tailored for a desired end. Release profiles include:

• Conventional (unmodified) Release

• Sustained-Release (SR) or Controlled Release (CR)—also called Time Release or Extended Release. SR profile may be achieved in two ways:

a) Matrix: Active ingredients are dis- persed within the polymer

b) Reservoir: Active and inactive ingredients form the core which are encapsulated by membranes

• Targeted Release 

Several bi-layer INC tablets with tailored release profile have been formulated includ- ing NiLitis SR bilayer tablet for joint health from America’s Finest Incorporated.

Anti-Inflammatory Ingredients 

Two key enzymes, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), are involved in inflammation including inflammation of joints. COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme (being found in most mammalian cells); COX-2 is an inducible enzyme (becoming abundant in activated/stimulated macrophages and other cells at sites of inflammation). While COX enzymes produce prostaglandins and thromboxanes, LOX enzyme produces leukotrienes.

Natural anti-inflammatory ingredients are usually preferred over the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) because they do not have gastrointestinal and renal side effects of these drugs. There are three natural anti-inflammatory ingredients in NiLitis SR: Curcumin C3 Complex, Boswellin and ginger extract.

• Curcumin C3 Complex, a powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, is the main ingredient of NiLitis SR formulation. Curcumin’s impressive anti-inflammatory role comes from its inhibitory effect at several levels. As an antioxidant, it scavenges oxygen free radicals as harmful stimuli and it inhibits COX-2 activity for generation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Finally, curcumin inhibits LOX activity for generation of leukotrienes.

• Boswellin, a standardized extract from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata, contains four major boswellic acids. Out of these four boswellic acids, acetyl-11-keto-ß- boswellic acid (AKBBA) is the most potent inhibitor of LOX.

• Ginger extract complements the above ingredients with its anti-inflammatory func- tion. Gingerol, the active component of ginger extract, has been found to possess many interesting pharmacological and physiological activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cardiotonic effects.

NiLitis SR also contains BioPerines (patented black pepper extract), which enhances the gut absorption and utilization of above natural anti-inflammatory ingredients.

Clinical Trial 

To assess the efficacy and safety of NiLitis SR (formerly named Nilin SR) tablets in the management of osteoarthritis of knee, 32 subjects from the 40-65 years age group having osteoarthritis of the knee, with no other rheumatologic condition, were enrolled.Subjects were judged to have osteoarthritis with clinical diagnostic features: knee pain for most days of the month, morning stiffness of less than 30 minute duration, stiffness while resting the affected joint and age over 40 years.

The primary outcome was self-reported pain, stiffness and physical function scores as measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) (Fig. 1), six-minute walk distance (Fig. 2) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measured at zero, one, two and four hours, respectively (Fig. 3). Secondary outcomes included laboratory investigations and serological biomarker, i.e. Hs-CRP. A significant improvement in the clinical and biochemical endpoints along with excellent tolerability indicates that NiLitis SR can be used for the longterm management of osteoarthritis. Of the 32 subjects, 30 completed the study. WOMAC Scores significantly reduced from baseline to final visit for all the three parameters (pain, stiffness and physical disability). A significant reduction was also noted in the visual analogue scale over the course of four hours after ingestion of medication. A significant improvement in the six-minute walk distance and decrease in Hs-CRP levels was observed. No adverse events were reported in the trial.


Natarajan S and Majeed M; To assess the efficacy & safety of NILINTM SR tablets in the management of osteoarthritis of knee; International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences. 2012, Vol. 3 Issue 2, 1413-1423. 

Carotech Inc.

21 Balmoral Ct.
Edison, NJ 08817
Phone: (732) 906-1901
Email: info@caro-bf.com
Websites: www.carotech.net; www.tocotrienol.org

Tocotrienols: Nature Knows Best

By Bryan See, Regional Product Manager, Carotech Inc.

Is vitamin E “alpha-tocopherol?” Is it “mixed tocopherols?” No, those are only part of the picture. The vitamin E family also includes four less well-known forms— the tocotrienols.Published research and clinical studies are now clearly demonstrating the superior qualities of tocotrienols.

Food sources of vitamin E typically con- tain either tocopherols with no tocotrienols, or some tocotrienols with a little tocopherol.But there is one food source—red palm oil— that offers a rich balance of all four tocotrienols (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols), with a modest amount of tocopherol. A staple oil in African and Asian cuisine, red palm oil contains powerful phy- tonutrients that are beneficial for human health: tocotrienols and tocopherols, mixed carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene and CoQ10.

Red palm oil and palm tocotrienols recently got a boost on the Dr. Oz television show, but full-spectrum palm tocotrienols have been around for decades. Tocotrienols are antioxidants that protect lipids from per- oxidation, and they have been shown to be 40 to 60 times more potent antioxidants than tocopherols. Full-spectrum palm tocotrienols are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

In the last few years, research into tocotrienols has exploded, with palm tocotrienols leading the way. Research shows tocotrienols support healthy brain and liver function, and heart health in several ways.They can also protect and nourish the skin.

A Healthy Brain 

Can tocotrienols reach the brain? Research shows that orally ingested palm tocotrienols are well absorbed and distributed to organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, heart, muscles, adipose tissue, blood and skin.1 Recent National Institutes of Health- (NIH) funded research using dogs shows that palm tocotrienols increase blood circulation through collateral arteries to the area of the brain damaged by ischemic stroke.2

Heart Vitality 

In a study published in 1995, 50 patients with carotid artery blockage took palm tocotrienols for 18 months.Of the 25 tocotrienol subjects, seven had atherosclerotic regression, and only two had atheros clerotic progression. None of the control group showed regres- sion, and 10 showed progression. Platelet peroxidation decreased in the treatment group, but increased in the placebo group.3 

More recently, peer review journals document palm tocotrienols’ promising hypocho- lesterolemic properties.4,5 A recent double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial shows that palm tocotrienols reduced total and LDL cholesterol in four months.6 In another clinical trial, patients supplemented with palm tocotrienol complex for two months showed significant reduction in aortic systolic blood pressure.7 And a randomized, controlled clinical trial demonstrated that palm tocotrienols reduced arterial stiffness in healthy adults in two months.8 

Liver Health 

Palm tocotrienols have been found to be profoundly beneficial in addressing non- alcoholic fatty liver. After one year of ingesting a full-spectrum palm tocotrienols, 50 percent of the subjects no longer had fatty liver.9 In a 2012 study, patients awaiting liver transplant were given palm tocotrienols, and half of them unexpectedly found their liver health scores improving.1 

Vibrant Skin 

Vitamin E has long been used in the body care industry as an antioxidant to protect skin from free radical damage caused by chemical insult and UV rays. Typically, alpha-toco- pherol has been used, but recently, promising research suggests that tocotrienols offer superior protection of skin. Dr. Nicholas Perricone, Yale dermatologist and author of the best-selling book, The Wrinkle Cure, advocates tocotrienols in cream to promote skin health and prevent skin aging.

Tocotrienols: The Real Vitamin E?

Some “vitamin E” studies that only used alpha-tocopherol had mixed or negative results. Research on tocotrienols, however, consistently shows they provide powerful support for a healthy brain, heart and liver, as well as the skin.

The outstanding star of tocotrienol research is natural full-spectrum palm tocotrienols, which contain a small amount of alpha-tocopherol and substantial amounts of mixed tocotrienols. When we utilize a wholesome complex of ingredients that nature produces instead of a single isomer, we see spectacular promise. Tocotrienols— naturally found in red palm oil and minimally processed—are the vitamin E of the future.


1 Patel V, et al. Oral tocotrienols are transported to human tissues and delay the progression of the model for end-stage liver disease score in patients. J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):513-9. Doi: 10.3945/jn.111.151902. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

2 Rink C, et al. Tocotrienol vitamin E protects against preclinical canine ischemic stroke by inducing arteriogen- esis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011 Nov;31(11):2218-30. Doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.85. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

3 Tomeo AC, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids.1995 Dec;30(12):1179-83.

4 Qureshi AA, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee).Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Apr;53(4 Suppl):1021S-1026S.

5 Qureshi AA, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids. 1995 Dec;30(12):1171-7.

6 KH Yuen et al. Effect of Mixed-Tocotrienols in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 3 (2011): 106-117.

7 Rasool AH, et al. Dose dependent elevation of plasma tocotrienol levels and its effect on arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status, and lipid profile in healthy humans supplemented with tocotrienol rich vitamin E. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Dec;52(6):473-8.

8 Rasool AH, et al. Arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels with a self emulsifying preparation of tocotrienol rich vitamin E. Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Sep;31(9):1212-7. Doi: 10.1007/s12272-001-1291-5. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

9 Magosso E, et al. (2010). Tocotrienols and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver: a Clinical Experience. 61st Liver Meeting, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). 28 October-2 November 2010, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA (USA). In Hepatology.2010;52(4 Supp):642.

Daiwa Health Development

1411 W. 190th St., Ste. 375
Gardena, CA 90248
Phone: (866) 475-4810 • Fax: (877) 434-3644
Email: info@dhdusa.net
Website: www.dhdusa.net

Slowing the Progress of Immunosenescence

The term immunosenescence was coined by the late gerontological researcher, Dr. Roy Walford, in the late 1960s. The expression succinctly defines the progression of a declining immune system over time, which leads to the aging process and anticipated decline in health that is accepted as “normal” in both humans and animals. Because of immunosenescence, the elderly are vulnerable to serious infectious diseases and a poor response to vaccinations. For example, the 2012-13 flu vaccination was reported to have only nine percent effectiveness against influenza A in seniors over the age of 65, versus 52 percent in adults under 65. Numerous reasons account for this weakened immune response, including a decline in haematopoietic stem cell activity and ability to produce B cells; a shrinking thymus, which results in lower T cell production; and telomere shortening.

As the current life expectancy continues to increase, scientists are looking for ways to improve the quality of life in later years. The key may lie in the concept of immunosce- nescence; if the deterioration of the immune system is largely responsible for the aging process, then investing in immune supportive therapies could be fundamental to enhance longevity and health.

Augmenting the immune system should start with improving one’s lifestyle; smoking, alcohol consumption, poor sleep habits and an unhealthy diet can all suppress immune cell function and must be minimized. But is there more that can be done to really supercharge the immune system and delay the degeneration process?

Rice Bran 

One exceptionally effective immune-enhancing nutrient is called Rice Bran Arabinoxylan Compound (RBAC), which is a natural poly- saccharide composed of hemi-cellulose extract from rice bran modified by an enzyme derived from shiitake mushroom.The resulting arabinoxylan compound is a smaller molecule than the rice bran extract from which it was derived, making it more bio-available and better absorbed. Many in vitro and human studies have been conducted on RBAC, which confirm its impact on the immune system; it consistently increases Natural killer (NK) cell activity, and significantly enhances B and T cell count in indvid- uals with compromised immune systems.
RBAC is particularly unique because it is a proven immunomodulator, a term defined by one researcher as “an agent possessing a broad range of activity dependent upon the existing state of health and immunity in the individual host.” 

In one published clinical trial, the enzymatically-treated rice bran was shown to increase NK cell activity in a dose-dependent manner up to a certain dosage. Twenty-four individuals took the compound at three different concentrations: 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg/day. The activity of NK cells was measured after taking the extract for one week, one month and two months. The results of the study showed that all doses increased the activity of NK cells, but the larger the dose, the quicker the NK activity increased. After two months of treatment, NK activity peaked to the same level regardless of the dosage. One month after discontinuing treatment, NK activity levels declined to baseline levels. This study proved valuable in making dosage recommendations; immune compromised persons should take a high initial dose of the supplement to boost NK activity quickly. After a few weeks, a high level of NK activity could be maintained long term on a lower maintenance dose level.

A more recent study at the University of Miami included 20 healthy individuals and determined that immune activity starts to increase within as little as two days, and becomes significant after one week of taking RBAC. This study also demonstrated the bi- directional immune marker effects that are expected with a proper immunomodulator.

Proven Results

But how does this boost in immune activity translate into clinical results? Several clinical studies and many reported case studies have demonstrated a significant positive clinical effect. One specific clinical trial showed that RBAC helped improve the quality of life for people with stage III-IV cancer when taken in conjunction with standard cancer therapies. In this study, the people in the control group used only standard cancer therapies and were found to have poor appetites with subsequent weight loss, extreme fatigue and high mortality rates. The group taking RBAC in conjunction with standard treat- ment experienced improved appetites, and significantly higher survival rates.

RBAC has been the subject of 40 published studies to date, and a multitude of case studies have been collected from physicians around the world. RBAC is found exclusively in a product called BRM4, manufactured by Daiwa Health Development, and is available at top physician-grade distributors.


Immunity & Ageing. 2005, 2:7. Www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2012-2013. htm. 

EMBO reports (2007) 8, 220–223.

Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, January 2000:58-62.

Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 2012, 2(7):265-279.

Int J Immunotherapy. 14(2) 89-99, 1998.

Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7):265-279.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy. 2004; 14(3).

Douglas Laboratories

600 Boyce Rd.
Pittsburgh, PA 15205
Phone: (800) 245-4440
Website: www.douglaslabs.com

Corvalen is All Natural D-Ribose: The Critical Building Block for Energy

Corvalen contains all natural D- ribose, a safe and clinically researched ingredient that sup
ports the natural way our bodies produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell.† Ribose is the vital structural backbone of critical cellular compounds called purines and pyrimidines. Our bodies must have an adequate supply of purines and pyrimidines to form major cellular constituents such as our genetic material (DNA and RNA), numerous cofactors, certain vitamins and, importantly, ATP.Ribose is the starting point for the synthesis of these fundamental cellular com- pounds, and the availability of ribose determines the rate at which it can be produced by cells and tissues.

D-ribose Helps the Body Quickly Produce ATP 

The role of D-ribose in regulating energy synthesis gives it a special significance unlike any other carbohydrate. The D-ribose in Corvalen, is a five-carbon monosaccharide that is a critical building block for the cellular synthesis of ATP. While every cell in the body has the ability to make D-ribose naturally, the metabolic pathway to make D- ribose is slow and rate limited. In times of metabolic stress, the body is unable to produce D-ribose. This limits ATP synthesis, restricts the formation of important cellular compounds and delays tissue recovery. D- ribose works directly to restore and sustain healthy energy pools which are critical to cellular function. No other compound regulates the energy synthetic pathways necessary to perform this important and vital metabolic function.

The Process of Energy Synthesis 

The body manufactures D-ribose naturally from glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. The gate keeping enzymes glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-Pdhl) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6- Pgdh) controls this complex metabolic process. The activities of these enzymes are poorly expressed in most body tissues, causing a delay in D-ribose synthesis, which limits cellular energy recovery.

Many situations produce a chronic metabolic stress state, leaving cells without the ability to efficiently recycle their energy supply. These stressed cells simply cannot make energy fast enough to keep pace with demand, however, D-ribose administration significantly accelerates energy recovery, allowing cells to conserve energy substrates and rebuild depleted energy pools.

The Proven Solution for Fatigue Support 

Countless people suffer from fatigue leaving many feeling exhausted, sore and physically drained. These feelings of severe exhaustion can be debilitating and seriously reduce core energy levels. Energy depletion unleashes a cascade of cellular reactions that contributes to fatigue and muscle soreness. When muscle tissue depletes its energy stores, it causes them to become stiff and tense, putting even more pressure on cellular energy reserves.This pressure causes calcium retention in the cell that forces potassium to activate pain receptors, which contribute to occasional muscle pain and a reduction in exercise tolerance. Minor pain can further exacerbate muscle tension, using even more ATP

By fueling ATP synthesis and restoring the cellular energy charge, D-ribose helps reverse this energy depletion pain cycle, reducing occasional muscle pain, overcoming fatigue and enhancing quality of life. A three-week clinical trial performed by J. Teitelbaum, MD on 41 patients with symptoms of chronic fatigue and muscle pain resulted in approximately 66 percent of patients experiencing significant improvement while on 15 g of daily D-ribose, with an average increase in Energy on the visual analog scale of 45 percent, and an average improvement in overall well-being of 30 percent.

Ventilatory Support & Physical Function for Heart Health

D-ribose administration accelerates ATP synthesis, helping to supply the crucial energy reserves needed to preserve cardiovascular health and wellness or recover from hypoxic insult.Clinical data shows that D-ribose supplementation can increase the heart’s hypoxic threshold, support diastolic heart function, increase exercise tolerance, quality of life and restore oxygen utilization in certain individuals.† Metabolic stress depletes cellular energy reserves. D-ribose availability regulates the synthesis and salvage of adenine nucleotides and restores cellular energy.† 

One of the original studies performed by Schneider et al. In 1985 found that supple- mentation with D-ribose after cardiac ischemia resulted in a significant shorter duration of diastolic recovery time vs. the control group (2.8 days vs. 9.4 days).Another study by Omran et al. In 2003 showed beneficial effects on diastolic function and quality of life in compromised patients after only three weeks of supplemental D-ribose.

† These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Teitelbaum JE, Johnson C, St Cyr J. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62.

Olsen NJ, Park JH. Am J Med Sci. 1998 Jun;315(6): Review.

Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE. J Rheumatol. 1995 May;22(5):953-8.

Eric R. Fenstad, Oladele Gazal, Linda M. Shecterle, J. A. St. Cyr & John G. Seifert: Dose Effects of D-Ribose on Glucose and Purine Metabolites: The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008; Volume 5, Number 1.

J. R. Schneider,et al. Cirr.,Vol. 72, #4, 1192, 1985.

Omran H, Illien S, MacCarter D, St Cyr J, Lüderitz B. Eur J Heart Fail. 2003 Oct;5(5):615-9.

Dean J. MacCarter, PhD, L. M. Shecterle, PhD, J.A. St. Cyr, MD, PhD, D-Ribose Benefits COPD, The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine. 2007,Volume 7, Number 2.

Drucker Labs

1600 Capital Ave., Ste. 100
Plano, TX 75074
Phone: (888) 881-2344
Email: sales@druckerlabs.com
Website: www.druckerlabs.com

Intra CELL Technology: Drucker Labs’ Proprietary Carbon-bonding Process

By Richard Drucker, BS, MS, ND, PhD

Drucker Labs manufactures and distributes a complete line of liquid dietary supplements available exclusively through qualified health care practitioners. The intraLINE products include: intraMAX, intraKID, intraMIN Tropical Fruit and intraMIN Unflavored. These products contain natural ingredients and are 100 percent carbon-bond organic.

Organic carbon is what separates living organisms from synthetic or inert objects. It is found in the form of methyls, aromatic protonates, heterocyclics, carbonyls, quinines and ketone-ketene-line carbonyls. Organic carbon is the basis for Drucker Labs’ intraLINE products. The company’s proprietary carbon-bonding process has transformed multivitamin and mineral supplements into living organic nutrition.

IntraCELL Technology is the result of more than 20 years of research, testing and analysis. This technology works to maximize intra-cellular and extracellular (interstitial fluid and fatty tissue) detoxification and then to infuse nutrients rapidly into the body’s cells.

The intraLINE products are manufactured using a cold-fill process to preserve their nutritional quality and great tasting flavor.While in production, the intraCELL process bonds each ingredient molecule to organic carbon. After the organic carbon has bonded to each molecule, the molecules are broken down into new, much smaller, restructured particles. These restructured particles enable the rapid conversion of inorganic matter to 100 percent carbon-bond organic nutrition in the form of trace minerals, fulvic acid, oxygen, poly-electrolytes, metalo-enzymes and more.

How Does intraCELL Technology Work?

Every day the body is exposed to some form of inorganic chemical toxins. Inorganic toxins are insoluble and synthetic (inert). The human body is not able to break these pollutants down, and as a result, the body stores the toxins in interstitial fluid, extracellular space and fatty tissue where they accumulate over time.

Drucker Labs’ intraLINE products deliver Carbon-bond organic minerals and other nutrients into the body. When the product is consumed, the organic carbon is attracted and attaches to inorganic toxins that are present.

When the carbon attaches to inorganic toxins, polymerization occurs and a new nonoxic polymer is created. The newly formed polymer is then broken down into much smaller, ultra-chelated and nontoxic particles. The previously insoluble synthetic toxins are now bonded to organic carbon that can be processed and naturally eliminated by the human body. These converted synthetic toxins are released from the body through the skin, the urine and the colon.

Concurrently, intraCELL Technology infuses the cells with carbon-bond organic minerals and other nutrients, which help to build and maintain nutritional balance.

Drucker Labs’ products are designed for those patients who have chemical sensitivi- ties and for those who wish to pursue a healthier lifestyle.

For more information about Drucker Labs and its intraLINE products, visit the company online at www.druckerlabs.com. You also may contact its customer service team at (888) 881-2344 Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m,-5:30 p.m. 


Methyls: Organic-based monovalent hydrocarbon radicals commonly associated with anaerobic diagenesis.

Aromatic Protonates: Organic-based aromatic carbon; hydrogen/carbon, aromatic Compounds.

Heterocyclics: A closed ring structure in which one or more of the atoms in the ring is an element other than carbon.

Carbonyls: CO bivalent radical; of a series of organic metal compounds containing this radical.

Quinones: A conjugated cyclic diketone with one to several six-membered carbon rings, produced in diagenesis.

Ketone-Ketene-Like Carbonyls: Organic chemical compound containing the divalent carbonyl group CO in combination with two hydrocarbon radicals.

IntraCELL Technology is a proprietary process based on the extensive research and development performed by Dr. Richard Drucker. All rights reserved.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

References Murray, K., Linder, P.W. (1983). Fulvic Acids: Structure & Metal Binding. I. A random molecular model: Journal of Soil Science. 34, 511-523.

Endurance Products Co.

P.O. Box 230956
Tigard, OR 97281
Phone: (800) 483-2532
Website: www.endur.com

The Science of Niacin Formulations

Niacin has been used as a dyslipidemic agent since 1955.

The mechanisms of action when used at pharmacologic doses result in reductions of LDL-C, triglycerides, Lp(a), ApoB and particle number (LDL-P); an increase in HDL-C; and a shift of lipoprotein particle size from smaller, dense particles to larger, less atherogenic particles (pattern B to pattern A). Non-lipid effects of niacin include reductions in blood viscosity, thrombosis and vascular inflammation, including the hsCRP and myeloperoxidase. With respect to atherosclerosis, it has been shown to reverse progression (including regression) in carotid, coronary and femoral arteries.Niacin limits tissue reperfusion injury following coronary occlusion, and reduces maladaptive vascular remodeling in patients with ischemic heart disease. Most importantly, niacin has consistently demonstrated reductions in cardiovascular disease clinical events, and was the first dyslipidemic agent to demonstrate a reduction in total mortality.

While not the intent of this review, the ACC’s March 9, 2013 reporting of the HPS2- THRIVE study results should be addressed, as it provides clarity on a limitation of niacin when combined with aggressive drug therapy. This secondary prevention study of more than 25,000 patients demonstrated no additional benefit for the addition of niacin/laropiprant to individuals taking a statin and already at NCEP treatment goals.This “failure” of niacin is limited to the subjects studied, and does not apply to primary prevention, individuals not taking a statin, nor those on a statin with remaining high triglycerides. A full position statement on this is available from the National Lipid Association.

Despite more than 50 years of use and clinical research, confusion remains regard- ing the utility of niacin and its available forms. There are three chemical structures commonly referred to as niacin, and available for consumer purchase. Nicotinic acid In either a plain, immediate release (IR) or extended release (ER) preparation, are the only forms of niacin with documented effects on lipids, atherosclerosis and cardio vascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The use of this form of niacin has been significantly impacted by its side effect profile. In particular, the harmless but annoying flushing caused by rapid increases in serum nicotinic acid, and the more serious concerns of hepa totoxicity that have been associated with over-dosing of long-acting formulations. A second form of niacin is niacinamide, or nicotinamide. This metabolite of nicotinic acid is active as vitamin B3, and is commonly used in multi-vitamin and B-vitamin complexes. It does not cause flushing nor exhibit any of the effects of its parent compound on lipids. The third form of niacin available as a dietary supplement, is inositol hexanicotinate (IHN), commonly called “No-Flush” niacin. Reports on the effectiveness of this niacin ester first appeared in European medical literature in the 1960s, and with respect to efficacy on lipids, consists of a controlled rabbit study, an unconTrolled study in 16 subjects, and a case report of Raynaud’s disease. In the 1990s, IHN began to be aggressively promoted as a safe alternative to nicotinic acid despite not a sin- gle randomized controlled trial (RCT) in human dyslipidemic subjects.

Recently, an RCT has been published comparing IHN to a wax-matrix ER niacin and placebo in U.S. subjects with dyslipi demia. The results conclude that both preparations were well tolerated, but the IHN was no different than placebo on lipids. In an important kinetic sub-analysis, serial blood draws confirmed an intermediate release of nicotinic acid for the wax matrix niacin, but virtually no discernable changes in serum nicotinic acid or its metabolites for IHN.This lack of bioavailability in humans has been reported previously, yet some authors proposed an as of yet unknown mechanism for its efficacy on lipids. The kinetic analysis combined with an RCT in a U.S. population should effectively conclude the use of IHN for any clinical purpose. In fact, the author of this study raised clinical and ethical concerns over the volume of IHN use in the U. S., stating that “Patients are wasting money on a worthless remedy and delaying appropriate treatment for a potentially serious health problem.”

In conclusion, nicotinic acid is the only form of niacin to demonstrate effects on cholesterol and CVD outcomes. Its use in either an IR (2,000-6,000 mg daily) or ER (500-2,000 mg daily) formulation have been clinically proven. ER formulations have been shown to be the best tolerated preparations, and can be used safely with no harmful effects on the liver when titrated carefully in doses up to 2,000 mg, and monitored by a clinician. IHN does not result in therapeutic levels of nicotinic acid, and should not be used for the management of dyslipidemias.

For a full list of references, visit www.naturalpractitionermag.com.

Fairhaven Health, LLC

1200 Harris Ave., Ste. 403
Bellingham, WA 98225
Phone: (360) 543-7888
E-mail: info@fairhavenhealth.com
Website: www.fairhavenhealth.com

Promoting Female Fertility by Supporting Egg Quality & Ovarian Function

According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, infertility now affects nearly eight million women and their partners in the United States, with irregular or abnormal ovulation accounting for approximately 25 percent of all female infertility problems. One of the most prevalent ovulatory disorders is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a medical condition that impacts nearly 10 percent of women of childbearing age and is characterized by oligoovulation, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. PCOS produces a wide range of symptoms including acne, weight gain, excessive hair growth and ovarian cysts, in addition to menstrual cycle irregularities.

Diminished egg quality also impacts female fertility, due to the fact that many women now wait until well into their 30s before trying to conceive. While it is well- known that the number of oocytes steadily declines as a woman ages, it is also true that the quality of a woman’s eggs declines with age (and hastened by smoking, exposure to environmental toxins, which is perhaps more detrimental to overall fertility than diminishing ovarian reserve). Poor egg quality can lead to fertility issues in a few different ways.As egg quality decreases, it is more difficult for sperm to fertilize the egg, implantation following fertilization is less likely to be successful and miscarriages are more frequent due to chromosomal abnormalities.

OvaBoost, a dietary supplement manufactured and distributed by Fairhaven Health, was formulated to help mitigate the impact of both PCOS and diminished egg quality on female fertility.

Although the exact etiology of PCOS is not yet fully understood, women with PCOS
Often display insulin insensitivity, resulting in high levels of circulating insulin, which is suspected as the cause of increased male hormones. This hormonal imbalance can result in ovulatory disorders. Fertility experts often prescribe insulin-lowering or insulin- sensitizing medications (for example, metformin) to improve menstrual cycle regularity and ovulation frequency, and have seen favorable results. Myo-inositol, a vitamin B- complex derived product that acts as an insulin-sensitizing agent, has also been studied, and has shown to be beneficial for promoting optimal ovarian function and cycle regularity in women with PCOS.1,2 

Like all cells in the body, oocytes are subjected to oxidative stress, and researchers point to the damage caused by reactive oxygen species as a primary cause of declining egg quality. While reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a necessary role in the ovulatory process (for example, in helping the follicle rupture), research has shown that excessive amounts of ROS accelerate oocyte aging and deteriorate oocyte quality, by decreasing the integrity of cell membranes and damaging nucleic acids.3 Maintaining an appropriate balance between ROS and antioxidants with- in the follicle is vital to optimize egg cell health and function.

Based on research on the benefits of insulin-sensitizing agents and the detrimen- tal impact of excessive ROS, the OvaBoost formulation includes myo-inositol and proVides key antioxidant nutrients to help limit the amount of oxidative stress oocytes to which oocytes are subjected. The leading antioxidant charge in this product is melatonin, a hormone primarily synthesized in the pineal gland that has been shown to be a powerful direct scavenger of free radicals.4,5 Recent research indicates that the combination of myo-inositol, melatonin and folic acid (also included in OvaBoost), significantly improves egg quality in women undergoing IVF treatments.6,7 OvaBoost contains three additional antioxidant ingredients—vitamin E, grapeseed extract and alpha lipoic acid—to help ensure that egg cells are adequately protected from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species.

OvaBoost was designed specifically for trying-to-conceive women who are over the age of 30, and for women who have PCOS.However, OvaBoost is also intended to optimize egg quality and ovarian function in trying to conceive women of all ages.


1 Ciotta L, et al. Effects of myo-inositol supplemen- tation on oocytes’ quality in PCOS patients: a double blind trail. Eur Rev Med Pharmaol Sci. 2011; 15(5): 509-14.

2 Gerli S, et al. Randomized, double blind placebo- controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.
Eur Rev Pharmacol Sci. 2007; 11(5): 347-354.

3 Agarwal A, et al. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review. Reprod Biol Endocrinol.2012 June 29; 10(1): 49.

4 Tamura H, et al. The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle. Journal of Ovarian Research.2012, 5:5.

5 Batioglu AS, et al. The efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality. Gynecol Endocrinol.2012 Feb; 28(2); 91-3.

6 Rizzo P, et al. Effect of the treatment with myo- inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.2010 Jun; 14(6): 555-61.

7 Unfer V, et al. Effect of a supplementation with my oinositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011 Nov;27(11):857-61.

Integrative Therapeutics

825 Challenger Dr.
Green Bay, WI 54311
Phone: (800) 931-1709
Website: www.integrativeinc.com

The Stress & Cortisol Connection

Cortisol, often referred to as the “stress hormone,” is produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. Cortisol is therefore intricately involved in many physiological functions in the body, including the regulation of healthy blood sugar metabolism, maintenance of healthy blood pressure levels already within normal limits, establishment of healthy immune system function and promotion of the body’s natural anti- inflammatory response.1 

When exposed to internal or external stress, the brain sends a message to the adrenal glands to increase cortisol secretion. The body responds by providing a surge in energy, increasing mental alertness and raising blood pressure, thereby preparing the body for the “fight or flight” response.2 

While this response provides an effective mechanism for coping with an acute stressor, increased or prolonged exposure to stress can lead to disruptions to normal cortisol levels. Disruptions in cortisol balance, in turn, can lead to changes in body chemistry, altering the balance of hormones and affecting the systems of the body. Research has shown that maintaining healthy cortisol levels can reduce stress, relieve occasional sleep- lessness and fatigue, and optimize immune system and neurological function.*3-5 

Stress Reduction & Restful Sleep 

Cortisol Manager stress hormone stabilizer by Integrative Therapeutics combines an effective dose of phosphatidylserine with stress-reducing ingredients and cortisol-low- ering botanicals to help reduce stress hor- mones and relieve occasional sleeplessness.* This supplement promotes relaxation and supports a healthy sleep cycle without the use of habit-forming ingredients.* Cortisol Manager is a safe and natural formula to increase the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep, while also providing all-day stress reduction.* 

Cortisol Manager Study 

A 28-day pilot study found that Cortisol Manager significantly reduced stress during the course of the study. In a subgroup tested For salivary cortisol levels, a drop of more than 60 percent was observed after the first dose, and averaged 75 to 83 percent reduction at study’s end.

*† A participant survey also revealed†6:

• 71 percent of participants felt more relaxed during the day*

• 71 percent experienced improved sleep*

• 64 percent achieved deeper sleep, while 57 percent felt they fell asleep more easily*

• 57 percent felt their stress level was reduced*

• 57 percent felt they were better able to handle stressful situations* 

Lowering Cortisol Levels & Stress- Induced Weight Gain 

Relaxation isn’t the only potential benefit from lowering elevated cortisol levels. A recent survey by the Mayo Clinic and insurance company Aviva USA reports that men suffering from occasional anxiety are more prone to weight gain than their less-stressed counterparts.7 

During the survey, which involved more than 2,000 adults, participants were asked about their health habits and factors that affected their well-being. The men experiencing more frequent bouts of anxiety were three times more likely to have had a dramatic increase in their weight over the past 10 years compared to men who were less stressed.7 

The researchers noted that increased stress boosts levels of cortisol, a hormone that is involved in the body’s “fight-or- flight” response. An over- abundance of cortisol not only encourages the storage of visceral fat deep within the abdomen, it impacts the ability to make smart decisions when choosing food. An Earlier study conducted at the University of California, San Francisco, found that women who secreted more cortisol during stressful situations were more likely to reach for foods high in fat and sugar.8 

† An open label pilot study involving 21 volunteers of the safety and effectiveness of a cortisol-reducing combination in healthy adults. 2006. Unpublished.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


1 Hillier SG. Diamonds are forever: The cortisol legacy. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:1-6.

2 Papadimitriou A, Priftis KN. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16(5):265-71. Epub 2009 Jun 29.

3 Melamed S, Ugarten U, Shirom A, Kahana L, Lerman Y, Froom P. Chronic burnout, somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels. J Psychosom Res.1999 Jun;46(6):591-8.

4 Capaldi Ii VF, Handwerger K, Richardson E, Stroud LR. Associations between sleep and cortisol responses to stress in children and adolescents: a pilot study.Behav Sleep Med. 2005;3(4):177-92.

5 Prinz PN, Bailey SL, Woods DL. Sleep impairments in healthy seniors: roles of stress, cortisol, and interleukin-1 beta. Chronobiol Int. 2000 May;17(3):391-404.

6 An open label pilot study of the safety and effectiveness of a cortisol-reducing combination in healthy adults. 2006. Unpublished.

7 Aviva USA Survey Finds Financial Situation is Top Stressor for Men and Links Stress Levels to Weight Gain. Bloomberg website. Available at www.bloomberg.com/article/2012-06- 05/ay6c0JpFTomU.html. Accessed September 30, 2012.

8 Epel E, Lapidus R, McEwen B, Brownell K. Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2001 Jan;26(1):37-49.

Kibow Biotech, Inc.

4629 West Chester Pike
Newtown Square, PA 19073
Phone: (888) 271-2560; (610) 353-5130 • Fax: (610) 353-5110
Email: info@kibowbiotech.com
Website: www.kibow.com

Probiotic Dietary Supplement to Maintain Healthy Kidney Function

Kidneys filter blood by retaining useful compounds and removing waste and excess fluid. They produce hormones that help regulate blood pressure and the number of red blood cells. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys cannot properly remove wastes.When kidneys malfunction, waste products, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine and other nitrogenous compounds, accumulate in the bloodstream, causing a condition called azotemia.Elevated levels of these toxic waste products can lead to serious health issues, such as kidney failure, kidney stones and other complications. In addition, related problems can include high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects at least 13 percent of the U.S. population and has increased by 30 percent since 1994, according to an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association.1 The World Health Organization reports that kidney disease and diseases of the urinary tract cause 850,000 deaths worldwide annually.Globally, CKD is the 12th leading cause of death and the 17th leading cause of disability.

CKD patients are more likely to die of a heart attack or stroke than of CKD.Additionally, patients with cardiovascular disease are at high risk of CKD, which may go unrecognized because of the similarity of symptoms between the two diseases.More than 26 million Americans—one in nine adults—are at increased risk, and most don’t know it. That’s because in the early stages, there are rarely any symptoms, or the symptoms are too slight to notice.However, CKD is a degenerative disease and over time, the condition will worsen.

While there is no cure for CKD, there is hope. Renadyl, Kibow Biotech’s flagship product, has been proven to reduce levels of the harmful toxins caused by kidney dysfunction and improve the quality of life for those living with kidney problems.Renadyl is a proprietary and patented probiotic dietary supplement that has been scientifically formulated and clinically tested. The strains of beneficial bacteria contained in Renadyl have been specially developed and selected for their affinity for nitrogenous waste metabolism and are delivered in an enteric coated gel capsule which protects the probiotics from harmful digestive acids. Nitrogenous waste products are utilized by Renadyl as nutrition, it metabolizes the waste products that have diffused from the bloodstream into the bowel. As the probiotics grow and multiply, they consume more nitrogenous waste and effectively help maintain healthy kidney function.

Data suggest that oral administration of Renadyl may act as a complimentary adjunct by extending renoprotection via intraintestinal extraction of toxic solutes in patients with CKD stages III and IV.2 

In a recent clinical trial, oral administration of Renadyl to CKD patients discerned significant reduction of BUN (blood urea nitrogen) along with enhanced well-being without serious adverse effects. It was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, six-month trial of probiotic bacteria on 46 outpatients with CKD stages III and IV. Among all patients from all four sites, BUN decreased in 29 patients (63 percent with a probability of >95 percent), creatinine values decreased in 20 patients (43 percent with no statistical difference) and uric acid levels decreased in 15 patients (33 percent with No statistical difference). Additionally, almost all subjects expressed a subjective sense of substantive overall improvement in perceived quality of life (86 percent with a probability of >95 percent) as determined from patient diaries.

Several ongoing clinical trials are investigating the benefits of Renadyl for patients with ESRD (dialysis). Preliminary data is encouraging.3 

The probiotic strains in Renadyl are Streptococcus thermophilus (KB19), Lactobacillus acidophilus (KB27) and Bifidobacterium longum (KB31). Each strain is naturally occurring and has not been genetically modified. These strains belong to classes of probiotics approved for human consumption and classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.4 Mild physical complaints including bloating, flatu- lence and/or diarrhea were observed in 10 study patients who completed the six month clinical trial at all sites. These symptoms were noticed only during the first three weeks of administration of probiotics and did not recur.

For more information on Renadyl visit www.kibow.com, email info@kibow- biotech.com or call (888) 371-2560.


1 Coresh, J, Selvin, E, et. Al. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. JAMA.2007;298(17):2038-2047.

2 Ranganathan N, Ranganathan P, Friedman EA, et al. Pilot study of probiotic dietary supplementation for promoting healthy kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. Adv Ther. 2010; 27(9):634–637.

3 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=kibow 

4 United States Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 170.3 and 21 CFR 170.30.

Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd.

600 Third Ave., 19th Fl.
New York, NY 10016
Phone: (800) 596-9252
E-mail: cullen@kyowa-usa.com

Metabolically Efficient Pantesin Pantethine

Pantesin is a branded form of pantethine, which is metabolized in the body from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Pantesin pantethine is a form of pantothenic acid, which has been proven to be metabolically efficient and bio-available when ingested. Pantesin is a pure, vegetarian, allergen-free ingredient available for use in dietary supplements.

Mechanism of Action 

Pantesin pantethine is a precursor and component of aoenzyme A (CoA) and forms the reactive component of CoA, which facilitates more than 100 chemical reactions and is extensively involved in carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. CoA also supports acetate oxidation, which allows the body to produce energy instead of excess lipids. CoA is constantly expended by the metabolic processes of the body and needs replenishing daily.

In the intestinal mucosa cells, Pantesin is hydrolyzed to yield pantothenic acid and cysteamine. The cysteamine inhibits acetyl- CoA carboxylase, which in turn reduces triglyceride synthesis. This inhibition of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase is the primary mediator of Pantesin’s lipid-lowering effect.

Pantesin also inhibits HMG-CoA reductase under some circumstances, thus lowering LDL cholesterol and other enzymes required for cholesterol synthesis.

Current Research 

A recent study, published in the Journal of Nutrition Research, examined the effect of Pantesin on total cholesterol (TC) and low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism in North American subjects.The study selected a total of 120 subjects, all with low to moderate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To minimize the impact of diet on study results, all subjects consumed a therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet for the four weeks following screening and before randomization to establish a base- line. The study also maintained the diet throughout the 16-week study period. At baseline, subjects were randomly assigned in a triple-blinded manner to either the Pantesin group (600 mg/d, baseline to week Eight, and 900 mg/d, weeks nine to 16) or an identically labeled, non-biologically active placebo group, with 60 subjects in each group.

Study Results 

There was some reduction in all subjects for TC and LDL-C from screening to baseline during the four-week TLC diet lead-in. By Week two after randomization, however, there was a significant decrease of TC, LDL-C and Apo-B in the subjects taking Pantesin as compared to those taking the placebo. This difference was sustained throughout the 16 weeks with the magnitude of the LDL-C reduction being greatest at week two (seven percent), averaging to a four percent reduction by week16. The dose was increased from 600 to 900 mg/d from weeks eight to 16, but the dose change did not alter LDL-C levels.


While much research on Pantesin has been done on subjects with a high-risk of CVD, this study provides a valuable addition by validating its efficacy on blood lipid levels in low risk individuals.

In addition, it is worth noting that accumulated research shows Pantesin to be well- tolerated (safe) with a very low frequency of side effects in typical dosages of 600 to 1,200 mg/d.


Rumbergera John A, Napolitano Joseph, Azumanoc Isao, Kamiyad Toshikazu, Evans Malkanthi. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5 used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. J Nutr Res. 2011; 31:608–615.

Branca D, Scutari G, Siliprandi N. Pantethine and pantothenate effect on the CoA content of rat liver. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1984;54: 211-6.

Prisco D, Rogasi PG, Matucci M, Paniccia R, Abbate R, Gensini GF, et al. Effect of oral treatment with pantethine on platelet and plasma phospholipids in Iia hyperlipoproteinemia. Angiology. 1987;38:241-7.

Gensini GF, Prisco D, Rogasi PG, Matucci M, Neri Serneri GG. Changes in fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids induced by pantethine treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1985;5: 309-18.

Hiramatsu K, Nozaki H, Arimori S. Influence of pantethine on platelet volume, microviscosity, lipid composition and functions in diabetes mellitus with hyper lipidemia. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1981;6:49-57.

Hata Y, Goto Y, Ide H, Tsuji M, Takahashi S, Itakura H, et al. Effects of pantethine on serum lipids and apoproteins-I. Results of a multicenter cooperative study. Geriat Med. 1986;24:1139-50.

McRae MP. Treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia with pantethine: a review and analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Nutr Res. 2005;25: 319-33.

Avogaro G, Bittolo BG, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Therap Res. 1983;33: 488-94

Life Extension

By Michael A. Smith, MD

3600 W. Commercial Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309
Phone: (866) 585-1435
Emails: epartner@lifeextension.com; customerservice@lef.org
Websites: www.lifeextensionretail.com/epartner; www.lifeextension.com

Healthy inflammation is key to the body doing its job. What one wants to avoid is inflammation that hangs around too long. That’s why a balanced inflammatory and immune response is essential to guarding health, especially as we age. And this becomes even more critical when you consider that the typical American diet often consisting of red meat, dairy products and fried foods tends to contribute to unnecessary inflammation in the body.

So naturally, if a healthy inflammatory response is the goal (and it should be), eating more greens, dark-colored fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds and cold-water fish is the best way to go.

But let’s face it, making major dietary changes is hard, time-consuming and some- times impractical. And this is where the right nutrients can play a vital role … especially those that facilitate a healthy inflammatory response.

If one is not already doing so, start taking omega-3 fats to inhibit inflammation. They may also want to consider boswellia since an extract of its sap has been shown to help inhibit inflammatory factors as well.1,2 

However, there’s a new nutrient making research headlines: black cumin seed oil. When extracted from 100 percent organic, non-GMO, cold-pressed black cumin seeds, the oil has been shown to modulate inflammation. Let’s take a look at the research.

Helps Inhibit Inflammation 

Five-hundred milligrams of cold-pressed black cumin seed oil extract was adminis- tered to 40 women twice daily for one month to support joint health and ease-of- motion. Researchers noted that it helped inhibit inflammatory factors and successfully enhance ease-of-motion.3 

Offers Seasonal Support 

Sixty-six people were recruited for a double- blind clinical trial to test the effectiveness of black cumin seed oil on seasonal symptom development. The results showed that the inflammatory factors that trigger itching and nasal congestion were significantly inhibited.4 

Supports Defensive Activity 

An aging, healthy immune system needs to orchestrate the activity of macrophages and Helper T-cells. And black cumin seed oil was also shown to support the optimal function of this vitally important defensive activity.5-7

Remember: Black Cumin is NOT Cumin Spice 

Please don’t confuse the two! The culinary spice “cumin” is not the same thing as black cumin. In fact, they each come from totally different plant families. Black cumin is from the Ranunculaceae family and is native to Southwest Asia. Cumin spice is from the Apiaceae family and is native to the eastern Mediterranean.

So why is black cumin seed oil the “next generation” nutrient to watch out for?
Because its actions help facilitate a healthy inflammatory response while also providing wide-ranging immune support.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


1 Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):373-8.

2 J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):249-53.

3 Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 12. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.3679. 4 Am J Otolaryngol. 2011 Sep-Oct;32(5):402-7.

5 Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 Sep;22(9):729-40.

6 Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Feb;22(1):37-43.

7 Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Aug;50(7):654-65.


25 Enterprise Pkwy.
Aliso Viejo, CA 92656
Phone: (800) 692-9400
Website: www.metagenics.com

Estrovera: Designed to Reduce Hot Flashes

Estrovera by Metagenics features a spe- cial extract of Siberian rhubarb root (Rheum rhaponticum) designed to reduce hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms without potential serious adverse events associated with conventional hormone therapies (HT).

Menopause is the clinical term used after menstruation has ceased for one year, after which women are considered post menopausal.1 In the Western world, the age range for natural menopause is 40 to 58 years, with 51 being the median age for menopause. The average age of menopause in Canada is also 51, and it is estimated that women over age 50 will comprise almost one quarter (22 percent) of the population by the year 2026.2 Of all the menopausal symptoms, hot flashes (also referred to as hot flushes) are the most common and potentially debilitating. Nearly 80 percent of women in Western countries suffer from hot flashes, with 30 percent reporting hot flashes severe and frequent enough to seriously affect quality of life.3 

HT is considered the most effective med- ical treatment option for relief of hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms.4 However, HT is currently recommended only for moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to potential increased risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular events and other unwanted side effects.1 The North American Menopause Society recommends using the lowest possible dose for the shortest duration possible.3 The Society for Obstetricians and Gynaegologists of Canada also recommends using the lowest effective dose for HT.2 Women with a history of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolism, breast or uterine cancer, or liver disease, should not use estrogen to alleviate vasomotor symptoms.1 

Among the natural non-pharmalogical therapies, phytoestrogens are the most popu- lar and the most studied category.Phytoestrogens are plant substances found in soy, red clover, flax, hops and others, that possess weak estrogenic activity by binding to estrogen receptors (ER). However, systematic review of literature found that phytoe strogens such as isoflavones, lignans and 8- prenylnaringenin have, at best, only modest effect in ameliorating menopausal symptoms.5-7

Since 1993, a special phytoestrogen extract from the root of Siberian rhubarb (Rheum Rhaponticum) known in scientific literature as Err 731 has been recommended by health care practitioners in Germany for menopausal hot flashes and related complaints.8 Unlike Chinese rhubarb (e.g., R. palmatum, R. officinale) or other medicinal rhubarb species that contain strong laxatives anthraquinones, the main constituents of Err 731 are hydroxystilbenes, including rhaponticin, desoxy rhaponticin, rhaponti genin and desoxyrhapontigenin.8 They are found to be agonists of estrogen receptor ß‚ (ERß) and do not display Era activity in endometrial tissue in laboratory studies.9 ERß‚ activation is involved in the estradiol- mediated reduction of hot flashes.10 In tissues that express both Era and ERß, ERß acts as a negative regulator of Era and offers protection against Era-mediated effects in the breast and endometrium.11,12 

Clinical trials have demonstrated that one tablet (4 mg) daily of Err 731 offers effective relief for common menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes.8,10,13-15 For example, in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in which 112 perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms received either one tablet of Err 731 (n=56) or place- bo (n=56) for 12 weeks, Err 731 treatment compared with placebo treatment resulted in:15

• A significant reduction of the menopause rating scale (MRS) total score and in each individual MRS item score.

• A significant reduction in the number of hot flashes, from an average of 12 per day at baseline to 2.8 ±2.8 (mean ± SE) per day at 12 weeks.

• A significant reduction in the hot flash weekly weighted score.

In a long-term clinical study with subjects taking Err 731 for up to 24 months, women reported continued symptom reduction to help improve quality of life through reduced anxiety, negative mood and sleep disturbances.10

Data from these clinical trials also show that Err 731 is well tolerated; no Err 731- related adverse events are observed.8,10,13-15 

Err 731, the active ingredient in Estrovera, is available to health care practitioners in North America, exclusively from Metagenics, Inc. 

For a full list of references, visit www.naturalpractitionermag.com.

Nature’s Plus

548 Broadhollow Rd.
Melville, NY 11747
Phone: (800) 645-9500
Website: www.naturesplus.com

The New Revolution in Anti-Aging Antioxidant Science

It often takes decades for the public to catch up with the latest research.For example, early studies in the 1960s and 70s showed that high-fat diets were strongly associated with heart disease. By the early 1980s, many people were avoiding all dietary fats altogether. But by the mid-80s, scientists came to understand that not all fats are alike; in fact, unsaturated fats and essential fatty acids (EFAs) promote heart health. Yet, for decades people continued avoiding healthy fats.

A similar situation occurred with probiotics. For many years, people viewed all microorganisms as pathogens, and avoided even the good microorganisms in yogurts, pickles and relishes. Today, they are widely known as probiotics. Again, many avoided their benefits for decades, simply due to a lack of knowledge. As with other poorly understood nutrients, the general population now suffers from a lack of understanding of antioxidants.

Nature’s Plus seeks to empower consumers with a new understanding in its new line of 23 AgeLoss supplements. The revolutionary new understanding can be exemplified in the science of a key ingredient, olive fruit/leaf hydroxytyrosol. Researchers and health experts have already adopted a new way of looking at antioxidants and free radicals. The old understanding held that one antioxidant is essentially the same as another. The new understanding is that there are five major classes of free radicals, each with unique characteristics and thus affecting difFerent tissues very differently.

Each tissue and cell is continually under attack by a unique combination of these classes of free radicals; peroxyl, hydroxyl, peroxynitrite, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen free radicals. Battling these free rad- icals are five major classes of whole food antioxidants activities: ORAC (anti-perox- yl), HORAC (anti-hydroxyl), NORAC (anti- peroxynitrite), SORAC (anti-superoxide) and SOAC (anti-singlet oxygen). The term “Total ORAC” is the sum of all five classes of activity.

Under the old way of thinking, one might expect that 1,000 Total ORAC units of vita- min C activity daily would work just as well against artery-clogging free radicals as 1,000 Total ORAC units of antioxidant activity from any other nutrient; for example olive hydroxytyrosol. But this equivalency has been proven invalid. A simple comparison of search results through the National Library of Medicine’s online PubMed database shows that researchers are focusing more on the artery-clogging activity of the superoxide anion than any other free radical. Research on the damages caused by the hydroxyl free radical comes in second. The remaining free radicals receive relatively little attention.

As such, one would expect that fat-soluble hydroxytyrosol, with stronger SORAC and HORAC activity, would be more effective Than vitamin C, which is not fat soluble, and has substantially lower SORAC and HORAC activity. Vitamin C reportedly has approximately 3,000 Total ORAC µmole TE/g directed primarily against the superoxide anion, with relatively little HORAC activity.

Olive fruit/leaf hydroxytyrosol, on the other hand, is fat-soluble and thus capably of functioning in the fatty microenvironments of blood lipids. What’s more, it is more focused against the free radicals of greatest significance (SORAC and HORAC activity).Analysis by Brunswick Labs reveals that hydroxytyrosol has a Total ORAC activity value of over 68,500 µmole TE/g with more than 37 percent as SORAC and 35 percent as HORAC.

This theory is now scientifically proven, as described in a 2011 European Food Safety Authority Opinion Paper. The opinion paper validates the theory that 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per day offers protection of blood LDL lipids from oxidative damage. Compared to the roughly 250 mg of vitamin C, purported to act similarly, hydroxytyrosol is clearly more effective.

The example of olive hydroxytyrosol demonstrates that specialized combinations of antioxidant activities perform better than nutrients with random activities. It shows that we now have the ability to combat the health robbing effects of these rogue molecules far more effectively than ever before. Nature’s Plus’ new Ageloss products employ this knowledge to customize antioxidant activity and address structure and functionspecific free radicals more effectively than ever before, and represent the future of antioxidant and anti-aging nutrition.


Toner, Cheryl; Consumer Perspectives about Antioxidants, American Society for Nutritional Sciences. J. Nutr. 134: 3192S–3193S, 2004.

Honzel, Dana; et. Al. Comparison of Chemical and Cell-Based Antioxidant Methods for Evaluation of Foods and Natural Products: Generating Multifaceted Data by Parallel Testing Using Erythrocytes and Polymorphonuclear Cells; J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 8319-8325.

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polyphenols in olive and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage, EFSA Journal. 2011;9(4):2033.

NeuroScience, Inc./Pharmasan Labs

373 280th St.
Osceola, WI 54020
Phone: (888) 342-7272
Email: customerservice@neuroscienceinc.com
Website: neuroscienceinc.com

A New Option for Diagnosing Lyme: Pharmasan Labs’ ispot Lyme

Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) reported nearly 32,500 new cases1 in 2011, though it is estimated that the actual number could be up to 10-fold higher2, making Lyme disease an epidemic larger than AIDS, West Nile Virus and Avian Flu combined.3-5 

Unfortunately, only a fraction of these cases are being treated due to equivocal clinical manifestations, inaccurate tests and underreporting.2 Patients not receiving adequate treatment may develop chronic infection or late-stage Lyme diseases, such as chronic Lyme arthritis or chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis, which can be devastating in some cases.6 

Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium of the spirochete class. Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector borne disease transmitted by the Ixodes (blacklegged) tick. Symptoms may include observed tick bite, a “bulls-eye” rash, flu-like symptoms, joint pain, neurological symptoms, heart palpitations and severe fatigue.

The current CDC recommended evaluation for diagnosis is a two-tier test, including ELISA and Western Blot analyses. These tests are serological assays that detect antibodies to B. burgdorferi. The low sensitivity of the two-tier tests (about 30 percent in early Lyme disease and 50 percent in late Lyme disease) and the significant seronegativity of Lyme patients (as many as 30 percent to 50 percent of cases) suggests that more sensitive T cell-based laboratory tests should also be developed.7 A thorough evaluation for Lyme requires testing for a humoral and a cellular immune response. This is done by measur- ing both antibodies (humoral/WB) and T- cell activity (cell-mediated/ELISPOT).

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) is an effective method for assess- ment of the magnitude and the quality of T cell immunity by measuring stimulated antigen-specific T cells.8,9 This method and more than 100 tests that measure nervous-, endocrine- and immune-system markers are performed by Pharmasan Labs in a state-of- the-art, CLIA-certified specialty reference laboratory with 12 PhDs on staff. Combined with NeuroScience’s custom health solutions, Pharmasan Labs offers natural practitioners Turnkey solutions to effectively address the root causes of patients’ conditions.

Clinical Relevance 

The ELISPOT method utilized in iSpot Lyme is a highly sensitive technique for detecting immune cells that secrete signature proteins (such as a given cytokine). It is the only available technology that accurately detects, measures and performs functional analysis of low-frequency immune cells. The sensitivity of ELISPOT is much higher than that of ELISA and flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining method.10 iSpot Lyme has a sensitivity of 84 percent and specificity of 94 percent.

The iSpot Lyme test detects a cellular immune response against Lyme antigens, which appears earlier in the disease process than the antibody response detected by the traditional Western Blot test.11 More importantly, iSpot Lyme can detect antigen-specific T cell responses in seronegative patients.12 Therefore, the Lyme ELISPOT test can be used to provide information regarding the current immune status of a Lyme disease patient.

iSpot Lyme Test

The iSpot Lyme test detects B. burgdorferi specific T cell responses in patients who have Been exposed to B. burgdorferi spirochetes.Individuals who have been infected with B. burgdorferi harbor B. burgdorferi -specific immune cells (T cells) in their bloodstream.Typically, these T cells can be detected before an antibody response.

The result is produced by measuring IFN-g secreted by T cells in response to stimulation by the B. burgdorferi antigens DbpA, OspC, P100 and VisE-1. This test measures frequency of antigen-specific T-cells by measuring TCells that areof exposure Lyme antigens. This is indicative to Lyme. A single result is provided on the report.


Methodology The immune respones to infection with B. burgdorferi includes both B cell and T cell activation. T cells are sensitized to B. burgdorferi antigens and the activated effector T cells produce the cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-?) When stimulated by these Antigens. The iSpot Lyme test counts B. burgdorferi-sensitized T cells by capturing IFN-? Secreted by these T cells. More specifically, when IFN-? Is released a “spot” of insoluble precipitate is formed at the site of the reaction. Evaluating the number of spot forming units (SFUs) provides a measurement of B. burgdorferi-sensitive effector/memory T cells in the peripheral blood. The SFU count correlates to a patient’s T-cell reaction to B. burgdorferi.


Lyme disease is an increasingly common condition that has varying stages of severity. A comprehensive approach to diagnosis will lead to better treatments and outcomes.Pharmasan Labs’ iSpot Lyme test is a highly sensitive test to identify B. burgdorferi infection, aiding health care professionals to better diagnoses of their patients.

For a full list of references, visit www.naturalpractitionermag.com.

Nordic Naturals

111 Jennings Dr.
Watsonville, CA
Phone/Fax: (800) 662-2544
Email: info@nordicnaturals.com
Website: www.nordicnaturals.com

Triglyceride Form Omega-3s Deliver Optimal Results

It is well known that marine omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) offer a host of health benefits when regularly con- sumed. These range from cardiovascular and mood support, to improved prenatal nutrition, to support for the anti-inflammatory pathways that benefit skin and joint health.* However, these benefits are only as good as the body’s ability to absorb and utilize omega-3s, which is why omega-3 milligrams per serving should not be the exclusive focus when selecting an omega-3 supplement.Molecular form is equally important.

Our bodies have been efficiently digesting and metabolizing EFAs for many thousands of years. We transport and use these essential fats in the triglyceride form, which resembles three parallel chains of molecules connected at one end by a molecular (glycerol) back- bone. Not surprisingly, this is the same form in which omega-3s EPA and DHA naturally exist in fish.

Synthetic fatty acid compounds that lack the molecular backbone of triglycerides are known as ethyl esters. These new-to-nature molecules constitute most concentrated fish oil products on the market today. Because ethyl esters lack the molecular backbone nat- urally found in triglycerides, they are less effective at delivering omega-3s to the body during digestion and metabolism.* Ethyl esters are simply not absorbed as readily as the triglyceride form, which means that even high milligram-per-serving ethyl ester concentrates do not provide the omega-3 benefits that we should expect from pharmaceutical grade fish oil.

The Science Behind Nordic Naturals’ ProEPA 

As omega-3 research continues to identify the mechanisms by which EFAs function, a clearer picture emerges as to why different omega- 3s benefit different aspects of human health. Triglyceride form eicsosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to offer special bene- fits for mood health, and support for the body’s key anti-inflamma- tory pathways.* Nordic Naturals professional EPA products have been the subjects of numerous studies in recent years, with Research published in leading professional journals, such as the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology and Psychiatry Research.

Nordic Naturals ProEPA was initially used in research on a group of substance abusers to assess its effects on anxiety disorder.Significant, enduring differences were found between treatment and control groups, leading researchers to conclude that omega- 3 supplementation could benefit some patients with anxiety.Subsequent research on this population showed that ProEPA was also effective at lowering aggression.The most significant findings on ProEPA came last year with the publication of research that compared the standard anti-depressant therapy citalopram with a combination therapy of citalopram and ProEPA. Results showed significant, positive effects on depression by the combination therapy.

Along with mood support ProEPA has been shown to promote the body’s key anti- inflammatory pathways.* In one study, ProEPA was found to be a viable alternative to conventional anti-inflammatory therapies for discogenic pain.* In another, c-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation and a predictor of cardiovascular events, was shown to be significant lower among high- CRP patients treated with ProEFA, compared with a placebo group.

This research supports the view that molecular form, not simply dosage, matters when choosing an omega-3 concentrate.Specifically, triglyceride-form, pharmaceuti- cal-grade omega-3 concentrates offer signifi- cant benefits to physical and emotional health.

For more information on the importance of the triglyceride form, or Nordic Naturals ProEFA, visit www.nordicnaturals.com.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Buydens-Branchey L. & Branchey M., n-3 polyun- saturated fatty acids decrease anxiety feelings in a population of substance abusers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec; 26(6):661–5.

Buydens-Branchey L. & Branchey M., Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusers. Psychiatry Research. 2008 Jan 15;157(1-3):95–104.

Gertsik L. & Poland R.E. et al, Omega-3 fatty acid augmentation of citalopram treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Feb; 32(1):61–4.

Maroon J.C. & Bost J.W., Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nons- teroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain.Surgical Neurology. 2006 Apr; 65(4):32–31.

Muhammad, K. & Morledge, T. et al, Treatment with ?-3 fatty acids reduces serum C-reactive protein concentration. Clinical Lipidology. 2011 Dec; 6(6):723–729.

Nutritional Magnesium Association

289 N. Cleveland St.
Orange, CA 92866
Phone: (714) 605-1100
Email: info@nutritionalmagnesium.org
Website: www.nutritionalmagnesium.org

Without Magnesium, Vitamin D & Calcium Alone Will Not Prevent Bone Fractures

By Carolyn Dean, MD, ND, Medical Advisory Board member Nutritional Magnesium Association

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a government- appointed panel of experts, recently issued a report stating that taking vitamin D and calcium supplements may not help prevent bone fractures in postmenopausal women, while also increasing the risk of kidney stones.1 

This is not surprising because adequate levels of magnesium in the body are essential for the absorption and metabolism of vitamin D and calcium. Magnesium converts vitamin D into its active form so that it can help calcium absorption and help prevent clogged arteries by drawing calcium out of the blood and soft tissues back into the bones where it is needed to build healthy bone structure.

Nutrients act in a synergetic way in the body. Absorption and metabolism of a particular nutrient will be affected, to a greater or lesser degree, by the other nutrients available to the body. This is also true with vitamin D. 

According to the nonprofit Vitamin D Council, “In order to receive the most health benefit from increased levels of vitamin D, the proper cofactors must be present in the body. Vitamin D has many cofactors, but the ones listed here are the most important, with Magnesium topping the list: magnesium, vitamin K, vitamin A, zinc and boron.” 

According to research studies, magnesium has been found to influence the body’s uti- lization of vitamin D in the following ways: Magnesium activates cellular enzymatic activity. In fact, all the enzymes that metabo- lize vitamin D require it.2,3 Low magnesium has been shown to alter, by way of decreasing, production of vitamin D’s active form, 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol).4 

Magnesium is needed to exert positive influence over the human genome and may be involved in the genetic actions of vitamin D. Magnesium possibly has a role in vitamin D’s effect on the immune system.5 

Animal studies have shown magnesium is also necessary for vitamin D’s beneficial actions on bone.6,7 

It is vitally important that studies on the efficacy of vita- min D and calcium in relation to bone health are not done in isolation in the absence of magnesium. The fact that magnesium works synergistically with vitamin D and calcium by stimulating the specific hormone calcitonin—which helps to pre- serve bone structure and draws calcium out of the blood and soft tissues back into the bones, preventing osteoporosis, some Forms of arthritis and kidney stones—can not be overlooked.

The many studies pointing to the importance of these two nutrients to the prevention of both heart disease and osteoporosis, and the fact that magnesium can be found to increase the effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium, make finding out about this vital mineral that much more important.


1 Moyer, V. A. Statement on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation to Prevent Fractures in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2013, Feb 26.
Doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-9-201305070-00603.

2 Zofková, I., R. L. Kancheva. The Relationship between Magnesium and Calciotropic Hormones.Magnes Res. 1995 Mar; 8 (1): 77–84.

3 Carpenter, T. O. Disturbances of Vitamin D Metabolism and Action during Clinical and Experimental Magnesium Deficiency. Magnes Res.1988 Dec; 1 (3–4): 131–39.

4 Saggese, G., S. Bertelloni, G. I. Baroncelli, G. Federico, L. Calisti, and C. Fusaro. Bone Demineralization and Impaired Mineral Metabolism in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. A Possible Role of Magnesium Deficiency. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1989 Jun; 43 (5–6): 405–14.

5 McCoy, H., and M. A. Kenney. Interactions between Magnesium and Vitamin D: Possible Implications in the Immune System. Magnes Res.1996 Oct; 9 (3): 185–203.

6 Risco, F., and M. L. Traba. Bone Specific Binding Sites for 1,25(OH)2D3 in Magnesium Deficiency. J Physiol Biochem. 2004 Sep; 60 (3): 199–203.

7 Risco, F., M. L. Traba, and C. de la Piedra.Possible Alterations of the In Vivo 1,25(OH)2D3 Synthesis and Its Tissue Distribution in Magnesium- Deficient Rats. Magnes Res. 1995 Mar; 8 (1): 27–35

About the Nutritional Magnesium Association

The non-profit Nutritional Magnesium Association is a trusted authority on the subject of magnesium and is a resource for all people affected by the widespread magnesium deficiency in our diets and the related health issues associated with this deficiency. A 32-page guide to the benefits of magnesium, along with magnesium deficiency symptoms, written by Dr. Dean, is available as a free download at www.nutritionalmagnesium.org.

Protocol for Life Balance

244 Knollwood Dr.
Bloomingdale, IL 60108
Phone: (877) 776-8610 • Fax: (855) 833-9012
Email: sales @protocolforlife.com
Website: www.protocolforlife.com

New Clinical Trial Confirms Viability of High-Dose Methylcobalamin Lozenges in Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among people over 65 years living in the Western countries is estimated to be no less than five percent and could be as high as 20 percent.1 Normally, the body stores from 2,000 to 5,000 mcg of vitamin B12 (mostly in the liver), and it might take years to develop discernible symptoms of deficiency. Diagnostically, serum levels of 200 pg/ml or less are regarded as deficient. However, a strong case has recently been made to view serum concentrations between 200 and 350 pg/ml as suboptimal for human health.2 

One of the reasons why the elderly are predisposed to developing B12 deficiency is because absorption of cobalamin requires robust digestion in the stomach and intact production of intrinsic factor (IF). Gastric juices enable extraction of cobalamin from food, while IF binds with cobalamin for further absorption in the small intestine. Declining digestive function combined with limited consumption of red meat (the main dietary source of vitamin B12) may reduce the amount of cobalamin taken up by the body. Eventually, body reserves are depleted and symptoms of deficiency emerge. Understandably, strict vegetarians are also at a significantly higher risk of becoming cobalamin-depleted.

Vitamin B12 deficiency might be difficult to recognize because the symptoms are nonspecific. They may include fatigue, depression, memory loss, sensory peripheral neuropathic pain, etc. Thus, measuring cobalamin level in the blood becomes a critical diagnostic tool. Other signs that might be suggestive of deficiency among the older population include chronic gastritis, microcytic anemia and increased homocysteine level, especially when general malaise and depression are present.

Regardless of the mechanism leading to vitamin B12 deficiency, correction of cobalamin reserves is always indicated. Because cobalamin absorption is expected to have been compromised, in order to bypass the digestive tract, injections are thought to be preferred. Typical protocol includes first weekly and then once-a-month 1,000 mcg vitamin B12 injections indicated for the rest of the patient’s life. As a result, many patients fall out of compliance once they start feeling better.

But even if the physiology of gastric secretion were intact, Ifenabled mechanism allows for absorption of only up to 3 mcg of vitamin B12 at a time.3 

Fortunately, a small percentage of vitamin B12 can also be absorbed by passive diffusion, which occurs throughout the entire GI tract, including the oral cavity, and without IF participation.3 Although only about one percent of cobalamin can enter the circulation via this mechanism, it becomes relevant when larger doses are administered. Because vitamin B12 has no known toxicity, very high doses can be given orally without safety concerns. Research shows that after oral administration of 10,000 mcg of cobalamin, about 100 mcg of vitamin B12 can be absorbed. A series of recent human bioavailability studies using 10,000 mcg methylcobalamin lozenges support this conclusion.4 

The most recent confirmation of the effectiveness of high-dose methylcobalamin lozenges in treating vitamin B12 deficiency comes from the study conducted at ABC Wellness Clinic (Sterling Heights, MI) in collaboration with Protocol For Life Balance. The findings were presented at the 2012 Conference by the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians.5 In this clinical trial, 10 patients with newly diagnosed cobalamin deficiency were randomly assigned to receive either once-a-week B12 injections (1,000 mcg) or daily high-dose 10,000 mcg methylcobalamin lozenge for eight weeks. The study demonstrated that vitamin B12 lozenges were as effective as the injectable regimen. Both treatments resulted in complete normalization of serum cobalamin levels in all patients (Figure 1). Additionally, homocysteine levels returned to normal and general symptoms improved regardless of the type of the treatment. The results demonstrate that a high-dose daily methylcobalamin lozenge regimen is a viable and convenient option to vitamin B12 injections, and should be considered in practice as equally effective.

Additionally, lozenge supplementation offers a significant cost advantage as compared to injections. In this particular study, the cost of supplementation was approximately $35 for eight weeks. The cost of just one office visit and a single injection was estimated to be $100, adding up to $800 for the duration of the study. This makes highdose methylcobalamin lozenges a regimen that is both more economical and has potentially better patient compliance, especially over the long term.


1 Clarke R, Grimley Evans J, Schneede J, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in later life. Age and Ageing. Jan 2004;33(1):34-41.

2 Spence JD, Stampfer MJ. Understanding the complexity of homocysteine lowering with vitamins: the potential role of subgroup analyses. JAMA. Dec 21 2011;306(23):2610-2611.

3 Andres E, Dali-Youcef N, Vogel T, Serraj K, Zimmer J. Oral cobalamin (vitamin B12) treatment. An update. Int J Lab Hematol. Feb 2008;31(1):1-8.

4 Unpublished, Protocol For Life Balance, Bloomingdale, IL; 2011-2012.

5 Culik DA BL, Sharpee RL, Pacholok SM. Effect of Daily High-Dose Methylcobalamin Lozenge Regimen or Weekly Injections in Patients with Cobalamin Deficiency. A Single-Center Prospective Randomized Open-Label Trial. AANP 2012 Conference: ABC Wellness; 2012.

Quincy Bio Science

301 S. Westfield Rd., #200
Madison, WI 53717
Phone: (888) 895-6463
Email: proservice@prevagen.com
Websites: www.prevagenpro.com

Apoaequor in Provides Memory Benefits for Boomer & Senior Market

When Baby Boomers and seniors were asked their biggest concern about aging, the No. 1 answer was maintaining mental capacity.1 According to the Natural Marketing Institute “Healthy Aging Survey,” the ability to remember was even more important than other challenges common in aging.Supporting healthy brain function is a crucial need now more than ever due to the sheer size of this age cohort. Beginning back in January 2011, the oldest members of the 78 million Baby Boomers turned 65.Every day for the next 19 years, 10,000 more will reach 65 years of age.2 

In normal aging, mild memory problems can occur as a result of excessive intracellu- lar calcium caused by poorly supported calcium-binding proteins. These proteins help to support brain function.Supplementing these proteins, which can be negatively affected by aging, has shown to support brain cell function in preclinical studies and to improve memory in humans.

Apoaequorin is a calcium-binding protein originally discovered in jellyfish and is the main ingredient in the memory supplement Prevagen Professional.* 

Safety of Apoaequorin 

Apoaequorin was originally obtained from the luminescent jellyfish species Aequorea victoria and is now produced in a recombinant fermentation process. The safety of apoaequorin is well-estab- lished based on the results of both acute and sub-chronic toxicology investigations. The recently published sub-chronic toxicity study in rats found that at 2,000 times equivalent human dosing, there were no clinical or ophthalmological signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, clinical pathology or histopathological changes attributable to administration of Apoaequorin.3 

Based on critical evaluations and the acceptance of a qualified, independent scientific panel, apoaequorin is now self affirmed GRAS (generally recognized as safe) and can be utilized as a food ingredient.

Effectiveness of Apoaequorin 

The effect of apoaequorin on cognition was measured in a large double-blind, placebo- controlled trial, where 218 adult partici- pants over the age of 40 with mild memory concerns were assessed five times over a 90- day period using a widely accepted computer-based cognitive testing protocol developed by Cogstate, Ltd.4 

Overall, participants in the Prevagen arm saw a significant positive change over the three month study period in the following areas:

• Verbal learning*

• Memory*

• Delayed recall*

• Executive function* 

Additionally, the participants scoring 0-1 on the AD8 screening test experienced a robust reduction in total errors of 29 percent compared to baseline.

Presently, Prevagen is the only dietary supplement to contain apoaequorin.
Prevagen Professional is an exclusive health care practitioner product, containing 40 mg Of apoaequorin—four times the level of consumer strength Prevagen.

The data suggests Prevagen is a safe and potentially effective approach to help those beginning to experience mild memory problems in aging such as forgetting why someone walked from one room to the next or having difficulty finding words in a conversation.*

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


1 Natural Marketing Institute, “Healthy Aging Survey”, 2008.

2 Pew Research Center, U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050, Feb 11, 2008.

3 Moran, D. et al, “Safety assessment of Apoaequorin, a protein preparation: Subchronic toxicity study in rats.” Food & Chemical Toxicology. 2013 March.

4 Underwood, M. et al, “Effect of apoaequorin on cognitive function.” www.prevagen.com/files/2012/09/ effects-of-cabp-apoaequorin-memory-coginitive-func- tion-older-adults-102612.pdf.

Redd Remedies

211 S. Quincy Ave.
Bradley, IL 60915
Phone: (888) 453-5058
Website: www.reddremedies.com

Panax/Asian Ginseng for Vital Energy

By Stacey Littlefield

Panax ginseng has a long, rich history of use in China, Korea and Japan that goes back thousands of years. It is a well-known adaptogen and a widely used restorative tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. Its scientific name “Panax” comes from the Latin word “panacea” because of its use for a large variety of conditions. Panax ginseng is one of the most studied herbs on Earth. Its safety has been well-established, not only through scientific research, but also through historical usage.

As a true adaptogen, ginseng is one of the great tonic remedies used to restore “qi,” or vital ener- gy, and restore vitality. The Journal of Pharmacological Sciences reports that ginseng pro- motes resistance to fatigue and stress, increases physical work capacity, stimulates learning and is radioprotective. It looks to balance, nourish and support the normal functions of the immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems. All of these effects are very well-established with the ginseng roots containing health-boosting components—polysaccharides, sterols and saponins. The active constituents in the roots are collectively called “ginsenosides,” and the amounts of these active compounds can be caused by various factors, including the age of the plant and where it was grown.

Asian ginseng comes in many forms and varieties. There are two distinct forms of Panax ginseng that are widely available here in the United States: white and red. White Panax ginseng is simply dried in the air and sun while red Panax is steamed and then dried. The steaming process slightly changes the properties of the root and its effects on the body. Red ginseng is much “warmer” than white ginseng, which is considered “slightly warm.” These are not terms we use in Western medicine, but think about them for a minute. A “warm” or “hot” herb is more stimulating and helps to move energy around the body. While red ginseng is still considered a tonic, it is used when more of a “push” is needed. For example, ginseng is commonly used for fatigue and exhaustion.

Much of the negative attention ginseng has received has a lot to do with misuse with the “more is better” mentality. It isn’t necessarily the “more ginseng” that is the issue; it’s the “more” of every other stimulant people consume with it.

According to the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, the first criteria for all adaptogens is that they must be nontoxic and safe—this is true of ginseng. Caffeine, on the other hand, is known for its toxicity issues—is the most widely abused stimulant in the world.Put those two things together and the “push” it creates in the body can be significant. It’s not inconceivable that mass amounts of ginseng (especially red) paired with excessive amounts of caffeine could cause issues.Because caffeine is a stimulant, it artificially extends to the central nervous system beyond its limits (that is why we experience a “caffeine crash”). Panax ginseng is going to make this artificial boost even stronger, because it is looking to balance a system that is obviously out of whack. It will also up- regulate body systems, such as the adrenals and the central nervous system, because they need it. It isn’t the ginseng that causes the irritability or the rise in blood pressure—it’s the caffeine. If the correct type of ginseng is used in the correct doses in the absence of excessive amounts of other stimulants, the outcome would be very different—it would be normalizing.

Panax ginseng is the granddaddy of all adaptogens. (Its Chinese name, ren shen, actually means “man root.”) This incredible Adaptogen has had the trust of several cultures for many millennia. And as long as it isn’t followed up with a few cans of highly- caffeinated energy drinks, one can experience the truly significant health benefits of this little root.

Redd Remedies Heart Strong contains White Panax ginseng as a key part of its Heart Strong Blend, which also contains hawthorn berry leaf and flower, and Coleus forskohlii—for overall cardiovascular health supporting healthy circulation, vessels and the cardiac muscle. In addition, Heart Strong contains acetyl-L-carnitine, CoQ10 and magnesium for energy creation. By taking two tablets a day, Heart Strong helps support a healthy heart function and blood flow for a more balanced, strong body.


Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. Vol. 95 (2004): 158-162.

Mutagenesis. Vol 20, Issue 4 (2005): 237-243.

Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 58, Issue 11 (1999): 1685-1693.

Analysis of natural glycosides (2007) 1-15.

Food Chemistry. Volume 103, Issue 3 (2007): 664-668. 

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 18, Issue 11 (2012): 1061-1069.

Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. Vol. 24, Issue 2 (2012): 70-76.

RLC Labs

28248 N. Tatum Blvd., Ste. B1-629
Cave Creek, AZ 85331
Phone: (877) 797-7997

i-Throid (Iodine USP and Potassium Iodide USP)

Iodine has been well established as an essential trace elemental that is necessary for proper thyroid function. Sufficient levels of iodine also assist the body in maintaining proper immune functions through potent antibacterial, antiviral and antipara- sitic properties.

Iodine was first discovered in 1811 by Bernard Courtois while manufacturing saltpeter (used to make gunpowder) from ashes of seaweed.1 After the initial discovery, Joseph Gay-Lussac, another French chemist, gave the new element its name iodine (from the Greek word “iodes” due to its purple color).2 

The first introduction of iodine for treatment of goiter (enlarged thyroid) was by a Swiss physician, Jean-Francois Coindet in1820. 3 The first major exploration on the use of iodine (iodized salt) as a therapy to reduce goiter in U.S. was conducted almost 100 years later by an American pathologist, David Marine, and his assistant O.P. Kimball in Ohio.4 This led the U.S. adopting the wide use of iodized salt by mid 1920s.

Despite its identification for well over a century, iodine deficiency continues to be an endemic problem with nearly two billion individuals (30 percent of the world popula- tion) having insufficient iodine intakes, a third being of school age.5 Deficiency may result in goiter, mental retardation and pregnancy-related problems including miscarriages, stillbirth, preterm delivery and congenital abnormalities in their babies. According to the World Health Organi- zation, iodine deficiency is “the single great- est preventable cause of mental retardation.”5 

The majority of the world’s iodine is found in oceans with soil levels varying region to region, and mountainous regions are among the most severely iodine-deficient.6 

Common food sources of iodine are iodized salt, seafood and sea vegetables (e.g. kelp) along with plants grown in iodine-rich soils. However, inadequate diet or use of ocean fish or sea vegetables, iodized salt, depletion of iodine in soils and increase of exposure of other halides, such as bromine, fluorine and chlorine, which compete for absorption and receptor binding in the body, continue to propel iodine deficiency.

One of the most beneficial iodine supplemental therapy for combating deficiency has been traditional Lugol’s solution. Lugol’s solution, first prepared in 1829 by French physician, J.G.A. Lugol, is a solution of ele- mental iodine and potassium iodine in water. Dr. Lugol found that using the reduced form of iodine (iodide) greatly increased solubility of iodine in water. This combination of iodide and iodine, initially utilized for iodine solution preparation, would later show to become more potent form of iodine therapy.

Iodine and iodide are utilized differently by the body. Iodide is primarily concentrated in the thyroid and skin, while iodine is concentrated in the breast and prostate.7,8 Other Tissues, such as kidneys, spleen, liver and salivary glands, can respond to both forms. It is this differing of tissue concentration that supplementation of iodine and iodide thera- py may be preferable to using only the single form.

Although effective and still widely used, the precise accuracy of iodine and iodide dosing in a liquid solution as well as the challenge of the liquid administration, presents issues. To that end, RLC Labs introduces i-Throid, It is the dry solid version of the traditional liquid solution to keep the weight/dose accuracy while the capsule form allows use of minimal inactive ingredients.

The result is a clean, potent, accurate, consistent and reliable alternative to other cur- rently available iodine/iodide therapy avail- able in the marketplace. From RLC Labs— makers of Nature-Throid and Westhroid— offering solutions for hypothyroidism for more than 70 years.


1 Swain, Patricia A., Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) Famed for Discovering Iodine (1811), and His Life in Paris from 1798, Bull. Hist. Chem. 2005, 30 (2); 103.

2 Gay-Lussac J., Sur un nouvel acide formé avec la substance décourverte par M. Courtois, Annales de Chimie. 1813, 88; 311.

3 Coindet, J.F., Découverte d’un nouveau remède contre le goitre. Annales de Chimie. 1820, 15; 49-59.

4 Marine D., Kimball O.P., The prevention of simple goiter in man. A Survey of the incidence and types of thyroid enlargements in the schoolgirls of Akron (Ohio), from the 5th to the 12th grades, inclusive – the plan of prevention proposed. 1917. J Lab Clin Med.1990, 115 (1); 128-136.

5 The Lancet, Iodine deficiency – way to go yet, The Lacet. 2008, 372 (9633); 88.

6 Hetzel B.S, Clugston G.A., Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, 1999; 253-264.

7 Brownstein, D., Iodine Why You Need It Why You Can’t Live Without It. 4th Ed, 2009.

8 Eskin, B., Different Tissue Responses for Iodine and Iodide in Rat Thyroid and Mammary Glands. Biol.Trace Element Res. 1995, 49.

Vital Nutrients

45 Kenneth Dooley Dr.
Middletown, CT 06457
Phone: (888) 328-9992
Email: orders@vitalnutrients.net
Website: www.vitalnutrients.net

Vital Nutrients Phyto-Curcumin Plus Enzymes 

Vital Nutrients Phyto-Curcumin Plus Enzymes combines 525 mg of cur- cumin phytosome with serratiopeptidase and bromelain.

Curcumin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex 

Curcumin is the familiar yellow pigment in the culinary herb turmeric. This rhizome has a long tradition of medicinal use in inflammatory conditions, and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated numerous direct and genomic effects on pro-inflammatory enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors.1 

However, curcumin is unstable at intestin- al pH, with a half-life of only 10 minutes, resulting in low oral absorption and necessitating high doses to achieve therapeutic plasma concentrations.

One strategy for increasing intestinal absorption of curcumin is to complex it with a phospholipid, specifically phosphatidyl- choline derived from non-GMO soy, shielding it from hydrolytic degradation and utilizing the phosholipid’s affinity for the cell membrane. This Curcumin- Phosphatidylcholine Complex, or “phyto- some,” has shown a much longer half-life at intestinal pH than curcumin alone, with 82 percent of the phytosome persisting after 240 minutes.2 In a human pharmacokinetic study, this translated to nearly 20-fold greater absorption of orally administered curcumin phytosome, compared to curcumin alone.3 

Two clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of the Curcumin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex in the treatment of osteoarthritis.In the first, 50 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to receive the “best available treatment” as defined by their practitioner, either with or without curcumin phytosome for three months. The curcumin phytosome group showed significantly greater improvement in treadmill walking performance, decreased use of pain medication, decreased gastrointestinal complications and a 49 percent decrease in management costs related to their arthritis.4 

In a second, similar study enrolling 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis for eight months, the curcumin phytosome group showed statistically significant improveMents in treadmill walking; scales of pain, stiffness and physical function; and several blood markers of inflammation.5 

Further, in a trial of 106 patients with chronic anterior uveitis relapsing for at least two years, curcumin phytosome was added to ongoing treatment with systemic medication or eye drops. During 12 months of therapy, the number of patients experiencing relapses decreased by 80 percent. This was deemed particularly impressive given the relatively poor vascularization of the ocular bulb.6 


Serratiopeptidase, a proteolytic enzyme iso- lated from the silk worm, is widely used in clinical practice in Japan and Europe for its anti-inflammatory, anti-edema and fibri- nolytic effects. It helps break down proteinaceous exudates and accelerate their clearance through the blood and lymphatics, improv- ing circulation to the focus of inflammation.It also appears to reduce pain by inhibiting release of bradykinin and other pain-inducing factors from inflamed or injured tissue.7 

Several clinical trials of serratiopeptidase have focused on respiratory, ear, nose and throat disorders. A multi-center, double- blind, placebo-controlled study of patients suffering from acute or chronic laryngitis, pharyngitis or sinusitis showed marked improvements in pain, mucus secretion, difficulty swallowing and body temperature after three to four days of treatment with Serratiopeptidase 10 mg three times daily.8 In an open-labeled trial with a non-treatment control group, the enzyme was also found to aid mucus clearance in patients with chronic airway diseases, decreasing sputum viscosity, elasticity and neutrophil count after four weeks of treatment.9 

Clinical trials have also shown benefits for patients undergoing surgery. Patients undergoing maxillary sinus surgery in a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study had significantly less buccal swelling when treated with Serratiopeptidase orally in the perioperative period.10 Similarly, significant reductions in postoperative pain and swelling were seen in patients receiving Serratiopeptidase following ankle surgery11 and third molar extraction.12 

Serratiopeptidase is generally well-tolerated with no greater incidence of side effects than placebo.13


Bromelain is a mixture of digestive enzymes derived from the stem of the pineapple plant.Like Serratiopeptidase, it inhibits synthesis of kinin compounds that increase edema and pain.14 Bromelain may also interfere with the arachidonic acid cascade, impeding the formation of inflammatory eicosanoids15 and resulting in reduced pain and inflammation associated with surgery, arthritis, trauma or sports injury.16 It reduces edema by inhibiting formation of fibrin within damaged tissue, improving circulation of blood and lymph to injured or inflamed tissue.

Preliminary clinical evidence suggests Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain in healthy adults.17 Bromelain in combination with trypsin and rutin has been demonstrated to be as effective and well-tolerated as the NSAID drug diclofenac sodium in short-term management of osteoarthritis of the knee18 and hip.19 

A recent clinical trial demonstrated Bromelain’s effectiveness in decreasing postoperative edema following third molar extraction.20 

Bromelain and Serratiopeptidase have antiplatelet effects; discontinue use two weeks prior to surgery, unless advised by your healthcare professional. Bromelain is not recommended for patients with pineapple or ragweed allergies.

For a full list of references, visit www.naturalpractitionermag.com.